Truth

John 14 “‘And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come back and take you to be with me that you also may be where I am. You know the way to the place where I am going.’ Thomas said to him, ‘Lord, we don’t know where you are going, so how can we know the way?’ Jesus answered, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me. If you really know me, you will know my Father as well. From now on, you do know him and have seen him.”

Definition of truth

noun, plural truths [troothz, trooths] .

  • the true or actual state of a matter
  • conformity with fact or reality
  • the state or character of being true
  • actuality or actual existence
  • an obvious or accepted fact; truism; platitude.

The nature of truth is debated, but truth is a statement that accurately reflects reality, logic, and/or morality. That which is true cannot be self-contradictory. There are different theories on truth such as . . .

  1. Coherence theory of truth says that truth is a set of coherent propositions from which truth statements are developed.
  2. Consensus theory of truth states that truth is dependent upon what is agreed upon by a group of people.
  3. Correspondence theory of truth says that truth corresponds to actuality.
  4. Linguistic theory of truth states that truth is a product of language.
  5. Pragmatic theory of truth states that truth is what is tested as being functionally valid in that it works in the real world. Science would operate with pragmatic truths.

Ravi Zacharias – “What is Truth?

What is Truth?

The Law of non-contradiction

The Law of non-contradiction is one of the basic laws in classical logic. It states that something cannot be both true and not true at the same time when dealing with the same context. For example, the chair in my living room, right now, cannot be made of wood and not made of wood at the same time. In the law of non-contradiction, where we have a set of statements about a subject, we cannot have any of the statements in that set negate the truth of any other statement in that same set. For example, we have a set of two statements about Judas. 1) Judas hanged himself. 2) Judas fell down, and his bowels spilled out. Neither statement about Judas contradicts the other. That is, neither statement makes the other impossible because neither excludes the possibility of the other. The statements can be harmonized by stating: Judas hanged himself, then his body fell down, and his bowels spilled out.

In order to make the set of statements contradictory, we would have something like: 1) Judas hanged himself. 2) Judas did not hang himself. Since either statement excludes the possibility of the other, we would then have a contradiction since both could not be true. However, to say that Judas hanged himself and Judas fell are not contradictory since both could occur.

Logic

Logic is the process of reasoning based on specific principles. From the Greek logos meaning “word,” logic is the study of the principles of reasoning–a set of premises that are examined and arranged so as to bring a conclusion. If A = B and B = C, then A = C.

Deductive logic is the method of validating a claim by means of supportive information where both the claim and the information are necessarily true. For example, people exist. All people breathe. Therefore, all people breathe.

Inductive logic is the method of drawing a conclusion from a set of supportive information, yet the conclusion has not yet been verified. For example, each night I get tired at 10 P.M. Therefore, I conclude that tonight I will be tired at 10 P.M.